You eat everything you like, move a little and lose weight steadily. Good? Not really. Sudden weight loss can be a sign of a serious illness.
Weight fluctuations of 1–2 kilograms are normal. But if you have lost more than 5% of your initial mass, and this cannot be explained in any way by changes in your diet and lifestyle, you should be wary and undergo a medical examination.
A person loses weight when the organs of our body – the brain, heart, muscles – cease to have enough nutrients for normal functioning, and they send a signal to the adipose tissue, which is time to use additional resources. In response to this signal, fat cells begin biolysis – the breakdown of fat – and give the body the necessary energy.
1# reason for weight loss: depression
One of the most common causes of weight loss. In people with depression, taste perception is impaired. Any food seems tasteless, appetite decreases. In addition, neurosis and depression are often accompanied by an exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastritis . Discomfort after eating aggravates the symptoms.
What to do? If, in addition to losing weight, you notice a constant bad mood, apathy, lethargy and lethargy, consult a psychotherapist. Only a qualified specialist can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
2# reason for weight loss: hormonal disorders
The hormones of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pituitary gland and pancreas are responsible for the metabolic rate in the body, so problems with these endocrine organs are immediately reflected in weight. In patients with hyperthyroidism and type 1 diabetes, body weight decreases, despite increased appetite. Such diseases are accompanied by weakness, dryness of the skin, increased heart rate and mood disorders.
What to do? Be sure to visit an endocrinologist and take tests for thyroid hormones (tsh, t3, t4). Blood tests are also needed: general and glucose.
3# the reason for weight loss: Git diseases
Some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract cause weight loss. Enter colitis; atrophic gastritis and celiac disease are on the “list of suspects”. These diseases lead to atrophy of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, as a result of which the absorption of nutrients is disrupted, and this leads to weight loss. Symptoms may vary: pain, bloating, a feeling of heaviness, diarrhea, or constipation. A lack of vitamins and minerals can occur in the form of anemia, dry skin, brittle nails, and bleeding gums.
What to do? See your Gastroenterology. Most likely, he will prescribe a gastro copy and fecal analysis to make an accurate diagnosis.
4# cause of weight loss: diseases of the pancreas and gall bladder
Body weight decreases with chronic pancreatitis and chronic cholecystitis. Because of these diseases, digestion is disturbed and the body loses its ability to absorb some nutrients. Patients feel discomfort after eating, nausea, diarrhea appears, with cholecystitis – pain in the right hypochondria. The chair changes consistency and acquires a greasy shine.
What to do? Consult a Gastroenterology. It is necessary to do an ultrasound of the abdominal organs and pass an analysis of feces. Follow a diet: exclude fatty and spicy from the diet, eat often and little by little.
5# reason for weight loss: infections and parasites
Weight loss can be a sign of serious viral diseases. Hepatitis c or hiv can develop for a long time without severe symptoms, and often it is weight loss that is the first sign of illness.
Another cause of weight loss may be tuberculosis. Patients lose their appetite, in addition, the body spends a lot of energy to fight the pathogen of infection. In addition to weight loss, a classic symptom of pulmonary tuberculosis is a prolonged cough with sputum, as well as a prolonged rise in temperature above 37 ° c, general weakness and night sweats.
A person can lose weight dramatically if parasitic protozoa, such as guardian, have settled in the intestines. Infection can be accompanied by nausea, bloating, stool disorders, and skin rashes or fever.
What to do? Self-diagnosis is useless, you need to see a therapist or an infectious disease specialist. Depending on the symptoms, you may be prescribed fluorography, a stool test, and various blood tests.
6# the reason for weight loss: oncology and blood diseases
Ontological diseases are often accompanied by significant weight loss and worsening of the general condition of patients – cancer cachexia. Patients lose their appetite, taste perception is disturbed. There are metabolic pathologist – muscle mass and adipose tissue volume decrease even with good nutrition. In addition, psychological factors can cause weight loss: patients with a recently confirmed diagnosis lose weight due to developing depression. Chemotherapy also leads to temporary weight loss.
Weight loss is one of the main symptoms of lymphoma. In addition to weight loss, these diseases are indicated by a painless increase in lymph nodes in the neck, in the armpits and in the groin. With leukemia, weight loss is also observed.
What to do? Persistent weakness, fatigue, prolonged fever are symptoms that should alert you. You need to visit a therapist who can refer you to the right specialist – an oncologist or hematologist. It will be necessary to pass a general and biochemical blood tests, make an x-ray. If there is a suspicion of lymphoma, computed tomography of the chest and abdominal cavity, a biopsy of the lymph nodes are prescribed , and for the elimination of leukemia, a puncture of the pelvic bone.