Physiology is a branch of biological sciences basic calls. Their knowledge allows us to understand the functioning of the various organ systems of the body and homeostasis and control of the internal environment. Is the basis for understanding the variations and changes that occur in the body as a result of illness or for any reason to alter this medium?
Physical exercise is to the body a change in the equilibrium conditions of the internal environment, if a disturbance in homeostasis that is captured by different receptors in the body, resulting in a mechanism of feed-back or feedback in a series of responses that the body tries to compensate for the imbalance caused. So called exercise responses to sudden and temporary changes in function caused by exercise or the functional changes that occur when an exercise is performed and disappear quickly after it ended.
These responses will be variable depending on genetic conditions and fitness of the individual as well as your health.
Moreover, chronic regular physical training on the body produces a number of changes or modifications are called adaptations involving morphological and functional differences in the body of a sedentary individual. These adaptations are observed both at rest and during exercise.
Understanding the response plus adaptation of the human body to exercise and their regulatory mechanisms are part of the area of knowledge of exercise physiology.
Adaptations of the organism to physical exercise will involve a physical-biological benefit to the individual as long as the exercise is performed under appropriate conditions. Without control or supervision by trained professionals, exercise can be harmful to the body and cause musculoskeletal injuries or other conditions that could jeopardize the life of the athlete.
This negative effect of physical exercise will result in some cases of excessive and disproportionate effort to the level of fitness, or a poor technique in performing the sporting gesture. At other times the cause of the problem will be the follies committed in some extreme sports by a half develop, or characteristics of self-practiced sport.
Moreover, it is important to assess the existence of an illness that prevents all or part of sports to prevent the adverse effects of physical exercise for health. The most serious of these would be the sudden death in some cases could be avoided by performing a medical-sport. It is therefore essential to individual selection of the most suitable physical activity for each person depending on their individual circumstances and objectives us to consider that the exercise program. If this selection is adequate promote the beneficial aspects of physical activity on health.
A control health or medical-sport help us to diagnose diseases that contraindicate sports or partially limit and guide us on the most advisable type of both quantity, intensity exercise and weekly distribution.
What is the concept of exercise intensity
The intensity of physical activity is the degree of effort required an exercise, if the amount of work done in relation to time. The intensity that involves physical activity can be expressed in terms of oxygen consumption. The muscles contract to allow body movement. This muscle contraction requires energy to produce.
The body obtains energy from the utilization of energy substrates, with or without the participation of oxygen. That is, a transformation of existing chemical energy into mechanical energy in energy substrates occurs.
What are the energy systems of the muscle in exercise
Skeletal muscle has three sources of energy for contraction. The galactic and lactic, and aerobic method. Anaerobic organization.The galactic anaerobic system is involved in activities of a few seconds duration
Anaerobic glycols or lactic anaerobic system participates as a key energy source in high intensity exercises lasting 30-90 s. This pathway provides maximum power for 20-35 s. high intensity exercise and metabolic rate decreases gradually with increasing oxidative rate about 45-90 seconds. The anaerobic lactic system is limited by intramuscular glycogen as an energy substrate. This power system produces less energy per unit of substrate, and as the aerobic pathway metabolic end product resulting in a lactic acid acidosis limiting exercise capacity fatigue occurring forms.
Aerobic or oxidative system participates as an energy source predominantly around 2 minutes of exercise, being the most profitable energy pathway and end products that do not produce fatigue. It is the most important long-term exercise metabolic pathway. Its limitation can be found on any system transports oxygen from the atmosphere until use at peripheral level in mitochondria. Another important limitation concerning the energy substrates, that is, to the storage and use of muscle and liver glycogen, and the ability to metabolize fat, protein ultimately.
It is important to consider that there is an overlap of these three energy systems, so it is more correct to speak of a predominance of a power system in a specific physical activity.
In conclusion we can say that the energy pathway predominantly used in physical activity depend on the intensity and duration of it.
Physical activity aerobic, if long lasting, light-moderate, performed regularly and mobilizes large muscle groups intensity is the type of exercise more recommended, of which the most beneficial health adaptations are derived. These types of dynamic continuous-race activities, cycling or swimming, have the great advantage that allows the practice to impose its own intensity of effort, their own pace according to their level, being generally independent of the game situation. The latter is the disadvantage of opposite sports as team sports for example, where the game situation requires maximum effort for the good of the team, even when practiced at recreational level effort which is not always physically prepared to face it without risk of injury or overexertion above recommended.
People, who exercise regularly aerobic type, have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Physical exercise prevents and facilitates the recovery of coronary disease. The reason for this benefit is that this type of exercise helps control coronary risk factors:
Lowers blood pressure at rest and helps control mild to moderate hypertension; Lipid profile changes with a decrease in blood triglycerides and increased HDL-cholesterol fraction with a protective effect against atherosclerosis;
It helps control diabetes by decreasing insulin requirements;
Produces a significant increase in caloric expenditure which allows controlling obesity;
In sports there is a tendency to have healthier dietary and hygiene habits, including smoking, eat well and getting enough rest; Physical exercise has a calming effect and allows us to get distracted and forget the daily stress.
Aerobic training produces a number of changes at different levels: cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, metabolic, digestive, osteoarticular. We should note that from the point of view of sports performance, body adaptations to exercise training are specific physical done , being the most appropriate mechanical and metabolic efficiency if a trained and automated sporting gesture, something that we will consider when performing functional assessments athletes is performed.